How the circadian clock helps the brain recover after injury

summary: NG2-glia, a newly discovered brain cell that can renew itself, is controlled by circadian rhythms. The findings shed new light on how the body’s circadian clock may promote healing after a traumatic brain injury.

Source: Children’s National Hospital

A type of brain cell that can renew itself is regulated by circadian rhythms, according to new research from the Children’s National Hospital, which may promote healing after traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Is.

released in the latest issue of e-neuro, The findings open new avenues of investigation for future TBI treatments. These injuries are currently managed only with supportive care and rehabilitation, rather than targeted drug treatment options.

The findings also underscore the importance of addressing circadian disturbances to help injured brains heal.

Many cells in the body follow a 24-hour rhythm driven by their own genes known as the circadian clock. The Children’s national research team found that a relatively newly discovered brain cell – known as NG2-glia, or oligodendrocyte precursor cells – also follows a circadian rhythm. This cell type is one of the few that self-renews continuously throughout adulthood and is particularly proliferative in the first week after brain injuries.

“We have found evidence for a role of this well-known molecular pathway — the molecular circadian clock — in regulating the ability of these NG2-glia to proliferate both at rest and after injury,” said Terry Dean, MD, PhD. Critical Care Specialist at Children’s National and lead author of the paper.

“This will serve as a starting point to investigate pathways that control cellular regeneration and optimize recovery after injury.”

Sometimes called the “silent epidemic”, TBI afflicts an estimated 69 million people worldwide each year, with a range of mild injuries to severe injuries that lead to mortality or lifelong disability.

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Many cells in the body follow a 24-hour rhythm driven by their own genes known as the circadian clock. Image is in public domain

In the United States alone, approximately 2.8 million people sustain TBI annually, including 630,000 children. TBI is the leading cause of death in people under the age of 45, and those who survive are often left with persistent physical, cognitive, and psychological disabilities.

Yet no targeted treatment exists for TBI, creating an important need to uncover the mechanisms that unlock the regeneration of these NG2-glia cells, which are known to grow and self-renew in the adult brain. It is the most common type of brain cell.

“It is important for researchers to know that cell renewal is coordinated with the time of day,” said Vittorio Gallo, Ph.D., interim chief academic officer and interim director of the National Research Institute for Children. “With this knowledge, we can dig deeper into the body’s genetic healing process to understand how cells control and reproduce themselves.”

About this TBI research news

Author: Katie Schrader
Source: Children’s National Hospital
contact: Katie Schrader – Children’s National Hospital
image: Image is in public domain

Basic Research: closed access.
,The endogenous circadian clock machinery controls cellular proliferation in cortical NG2-glia“By Terry Dean et al. e-neuro

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essence

The endogenous circadian clock machinery controls cellular proliferation in cortical NG2-glia

The molecular circadian clock can be found throughout the body and is essential for synchronizing cellular physiology with the 24-hour day. However, the role of the clock in regulating the brain’s regenerative capacity has not been explored.

We report here that murine NG2-glia, the largest population of proliferative cells in the mature central nervous system, rhythmically express circadian clock genes over a 24-h period, including critical clock components. bmal1 RNA and BMAL1 protein.

Interestingly, daily NG2-glia proliferation occurs preferentially during the time of day in which bmal1 Expression is high, whereas conditional knockout (CKO) bmal1 Reduces both cortical NG2-glia density and cellular proliferation.

Furthermore, in a neurotrauma model, we show that pathology-induced NG2-glia proliferation is also dependent on bmal1 Expression

Because circadian rhythm disturbances are common in neurologic disorders throughout life, including TBI, these findings have important implications for cellular regeneration in brain injury and disease.

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